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Our Dermatol Online.  2013; 4(Suppl. 2): 440-443
DOI:.  10.7241/ourd.20133.114
Date of submission:  04.05.2013 / acceptance: 24.07.2013
Conflicts of interest: None


Ahmad Al Aboud1, Khalid Al Aboud2

1Dermatology Department, King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Public Health, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author:  Dr. Khalid Al Aboud    e-mail: amoa65@hotmail.com


France officially the French Republic France is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe as a whole [1]. It possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world. It has been a major power with strong cultural, economic, military, and political influence in Europe and around the world. Its estimated current population is around 65,350,000 . The French healthcare system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997 and then again in 2000. Care is generally free for people affected by chronic diseases [1]. Many eponyms we use them currently, in our dermatology practice, originated from France. For example, Schnitzler’s syndrome which is characterized by recurrent urticarial rash and monoclonal gammopathy is named after the French dermatologist L. Schnitzler (Fig. 1) who first described this syndrome in 1972. As a matter of fact one my need to write a book if he or she wish to discuss French dermatological eponyms in details. However, in this communication, we meant to shed some lights only, on some examples of French dermatological eponyms, which we summarized it in Table I [2-20].
Figure 1. Picture of Liliane Schnitzler who was the first women to be made a Professor in dermatology, in France, and head of department at the age of 31.
Eponyms in the dermatology
literature linked to France
Acrodermatitis continua of
Hallopeau [2]
It an uncommon variant of pustular psoriasis first described by Hallopeau in 1890. François Henri Hallopeau (1842-1919), (Fig. 2), was a French dermatologist Other condition named after him is Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (also known as „Hallopeau–Siemens variant of epidermolysis bullosa”). Hermann Werner Siemens (1891-1969) was a German dermatologist.
Figure 2. François Henri
Hallopeau (1842- 1919)
Confluent and reticulated
papillomatosis of Gougerot and Carteaud [3]
Also known as Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis. Named for, 2 French physicians; Henri Gougerot (1881-1955), (Fig. 3), and Alexandre Carteaud (born 1897), Who originally described the condition in 1927.
Figure 3. Henri Gougerot
Darier disease [4]
Also known as Darier disease, Darier–White disease, Dyskeratosis follicularis and Keratosis follicularis. It is an autosomal dominant disorder discovered by Ferdinand-Jean Darier (856- 1938), (Fig. 4), who was a French physician, pathologist and dermatologist called the „father of modern dermatology in France”.
Figure 4. Ferdinand-Jean Darier (1856–1938)
Degos disease [5]

Robert Degos (1904–1987), (Fig. 5), was a French dermatologist who described several dermatoses including Degos disease (also called malignant atrophic papulosis) which is an extremely rare vasculopathy which results in tissue infarction.

Figure 5. Robert Degos
Erythema induratum of Bazin [6]

In 1861, Bazin gave the name erythema induratum to a nodular eruption that occurred on the lower legs of young women with tuberculosis. Erythema induratum/nodular vasculitis complex is classified into 2 variants: erythema induratum of Bazin type and nodular vasculitis or erythema induratum of Whitfield type. The Bazin type is related with tuberculous origin, but Whitfield type is not. Ernest Bazin (1894-1964), (Fig. 6), was a French physician.

Figure 6. Ernest Bazin (1894-1964)
Favre–Racouchot syndrome [7]
It is a disorder consisting of multiple open and closed comedones in the presence of actinically damaged skin. It is named after the French dermatologist Maurice Favre (1876-1954) and his pupil Jean Racouchot (1908-1994).
Fournier’s gangrene [8]

Fulminating infection of the scrotum leading to gangrene and commonly associated with diabetes. It is a type of necrotizing infection or gangrene usually affecting the perineum. It was first described by Baurienne in 1764 and is named after, Jean Alfred Fournier (1832-1914), French dermatologist (Fig. 7).

Figure 7. Jean Alfred Fournier
Griscelli syndrome (GS) [9]

It is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by albinism (hypopigmentation) with immunodeficiency, that usually causes death by early childhood. It is caused by mutations in either the myosin VA (GS1), RAB27A (GS2) or melanophilin (GS3) genes. The three GS subtypes are commonly characterized by pigment dilution of the skin and hair, due to defects involving melanosome transport in melanocytes. It is named after Claude Griscelli, (Fig.8), born in 1936, professor of pediatry at Hôpital des Enfants-Malades in Paris.

Figure 8. Professor Claude
Huriez syndrome [10]

Palmoplantar keratoderma with scleroatrophy. Named for French dermatologist, Claude Huriez (1907-1984), (Fig. 9). In 1960s, Huriez and his colleagues reported 2 families from northern France with, this syndrome, which is characterized by scleroatrophy of the hands and feet, nail hypoplasia, mild palmoplantar keratoderma and hypohidrosis.

Figure 9. Claude Huriez
Jacquet dermatitis [11]
It is another name for erosive form of irritant napkin dermatitis. The first true description of diaper dermatitis was made by Jacquet in 1905.
Laugier-Hunziker syndrome (LHS)
LHS is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse macular hyperpigmentation ofthe oral mucosa and, at times, longitudinal melanonychia. Laugier-Hunziker syndromewas first described in 1970 by Laugier (from France) and Hunziker (from Switzerland).
Papillon – Lefèvre syndrome [10]
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by diffuse, transgredient PPK in association with destructive periodontitis (beginning in childhood) and premature loss of teeth. It is named for 2 French dermatologists. Papillon and Paul Lefèvre, who described it in 1924.
Pautrier microabscess [13]

An intraepidermal collections of malignant lymphocytes, seen in cutaneous cell lymphoma. It is named after Lucien-Marie Pautrier, although he did not first describe them. Lucien-Marie Pautrier (1876-1959), (Fig. 10), was a French dermatologist, who headed a leading department at the medical school of Strasbourg.

Figure 10. Lucien-Marie Pautrier (1876-1959)
Pigmented purpuric lichenoid
dermatitis of Gougerot-Blum [14]
It is a type of pigmented purpura. It was characterized in 1925 by 2 French dermatologists; Paul Blum (1878-1933) and Henri Gougerot (1881-1955).
Poikiloderma of Civatte [15,16]

It refers to erythema associated with a mottled pigmentation seen on the sides of the neck more commonly in women. Civatte first described the condition in 1923. Achille Civatte
(1877-1956), (Fig. 11), was a French physician.

Figure 11. Achille Civatte
Sabouraud agar [17,18]

It is a type of agar containing peptones. It is used to cultivate dermatophytes and other types of fungi. It was created by, and is named after, Raymond Sabouraud in 1892. Raymond Sabouraud (1864–1938), (Fig. 12), was a French physician born in Nantes. He specialized in dermatology and mycology, and was also an accomplished painter and sculptor.

Figure 12. Raymond Sabouraud
Sézary syndrome [13]

In a series of papers from 1938 to 1949, Albert Sézary (1880-1956), (Fig. 13), a French dermatologist and syphilologist, described erythroderma with cellules monstrueuses (monster cells) in the skin and blood, which is now known as Sézary syndrome or Sézary disease.

Figure 13. Albert Sézary
Tzanck test [19,20]

In dermatopathology, the Tzanck test, also Tzanck smear, is scraping of an ulcer base to look for Tzanck cells. It is sometimes also called the Chickenpox skin test and the herpes skin test. It is named after Arnault Tzanck (1886–1954), (Fig. 14), a French dermatologist.

Figure 14. Arnault Tzanck
Woringer-Kolopp disease [13]

Pagetoid reticulosis (PR) is a rare form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Two variants of the disease are described: the localized type Woringer-Kolopp disease (WKD) and the disseminated type Ketron-Goodman disease (KGD). KGD is named after Lloyd W. Ketron and M.H. Goodman.The term PR has been introduced by Braun-Falco et al. in 1973 to identify this clinical entity, first described by Woringer and Kolopp in 1939, for the resemblance of infiltrating cells characterizing this condition with Paget’s cells present in the epidermotropic infiltrate of mammary Paget’s disease. Pierre Kolopp was French physician and Frederic Woringer (1903-1964), (Fig. 15), was one of Pautrier’s students, who had been in charge of the Laboratoire d’Histopathologie Cutanée in Strasbourg from 1930 until his death.

Figure 15. Frederic Woringer

                 Table I. Selected Eponyms in the dermatology literature linked to France


The authors wish to express sincere thanks to Daniel R Wallach, MD, Department of Dermatology of the NB Hopital Tarnier in Paris, France, and Pascale Barre; responsible for Dermaweb, Laboratoires Pierre Fabre, for their assistance in obtaining Figure 1 in this manuscript.

1. France. Wikipedia® [Internet]. Wikimedia Foundation. [Updated2 May 2013; cited 2 May 2013]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia. org/wiki/France
2. Tilles G, Wallach D: [François Henri Hallopeau (1842-1919)]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2001;128:1379.
3. [No authors listed]: [Tribute to Professor Henri Gougerot]. Ann Dermatol Syphiligr. 1952;79:377.
4. Ségal A: [Ferdinand-Jean Darier (1856-1938) dermatologist of world renown]. Hist Sci Med. 2009;43:389-94.
5. Saurat JH: In memoriam Professor Robert Degos (1904-1987). Dermatologica. 1987;175:265-6.
6. Vena GA, Apruzzi D, Vestita M, Panaro M, Carpagnano S, Filannino R, et al: Recurrence of erythema induratum of Bazin in a patient under chemotherapy for breast cancer. New Microbiol. 2011;34:331-3.
7.Zhang R, Zhu W: Favre-Racouchot syndrome associated with eyelid papilloma: a case report. J Biomed Res. 2012;26:474-7.
8. Al Aboud K, Al Aboud A: Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to genital skin disorders. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4:243-6.
9. Van Gele M, Dynoodt P, Lambert J: Griscelli syndrome: a model system to study vesicular trafficking. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009;22:268-82.
10. Al Aboud K, Al Aboud A: Eponyms in the dermatology literature linked to Palmo-Plantar Keratoderma. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4:in press.
11. Paradisi A, Capizzi R, Ghitti F, Lanza-Silveri S, Rendeli C, Guerriero C: Jacquet erosive diaper dermatitis: a therapeutic challenge. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34:385-6.
12. Al Aboud K, Al Aboud D: Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to Switzerland. Our Dermatol Online. 2013; 4:121-7.
13. Al Aboud K, Al Aboud D: Eponyms in the literature of cutaneous lymphomas. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4:385-8.
14. Lata Sharma, S. Gupta: Clinicoepidemiological study of pigmented purpuric dermatoses Indian Dermatol Online J. 2012; 3:17-20.
15. Touraine A: Achille Civatte, 1877-1956. Aust J Dermatol. 1956;3:213-4.
16. Scattone L, de Avelar Alchorne MM, Michalany N, Miot HA, Higashi VS: Histopathologic changes induced by intense pulsed light in the treatment of poikiloderma of Civatte. Dermatol Surg. 2012;38:1010-6.
17. Negroni R: Historical aspects of dermatomycoses. Clin Dermatol. 2010;28:125-32.
18. [No authors listed]: Raymond Sabouraud (1864-1938) French dermatologist. JAMA. 1970;214:363-4.
19. Vena GA, Apruzzi D, Vestita M, Panaro M, Carpagnano S, Filannino R, et al: Recurrence of erythema induratum of Bazin in a patient under chemotherapy for breast cancer. New Microbiol. 2011;34:331-3.
20. Cordero AA: The man behind the eponym. Arnault Tzanck, his work and times. Am J Dermatopathol. 1985;7:121-3.



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