2013.4-28.Eponymsvaccine

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Our Dermatol Online.  2013; 4(4): 559-563
DOI:.  10.7241/ourd.20134.142
Date of submission:  16.04.2013 / acceptance: 29.05.2013
Conflicts of interest: None
 

EPONYMS LINKED TO VACCINES AND ITS REACTIONS

Khalid Al Aboud1, Daifullah Al Aboud2

1Department of Public Health, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Dermatology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA
 

Corresponding author:  Dr. Khalid Al Aboud    e-mail: amoa65@hotmail.com


 

In this manuscript, We shall look to some eponyms in the medical literature from the vaccination window. The impact of vaccination on the health of the world’s peoples is hard to exaggerate. With the exception of safe water, no other modality, not even antibiotics, has had such a major effect on mortality reduction and population growth [1]. Vaccination has controlled the following 14 major diseases, at least in parts of the world: smallpox, diphtheria, tetanus, yellow fever, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, typhoid, rabies, rotavirus, and hepatitis B [1]. The most famous vaccine is BCG, which is a live, attenuated organism used to provide protective immunity against tuberculosis. It is a widely accepted immunotherapeutic modality of superficial and in situ transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. BCG immunotherapy has also been described for the treatment of malignant melanoma [2]. It has been used also to treat viral warts. A large number of local and generalized reactions have been reported after BCG vaccination. Examples are erythema multiforme, extensive ulceration and lupus vulgaris [2]. In Table I [3-26], We listed selected eponyms linked to vaccines and the reported reactions associated with its use. Neverthless, We want to stress that this table is only to highlight on some eponyms encountered in the literature of vaccinations and not inclusive for the all reported reactions associated with vaccinations.
 
Eponyms linked to vaccines and its
reactions
Remarks
BCG [3-5]

Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (Historically Vaccin Bilié de Calmette et Guérin commonly referred as Bacille de Calmette et Guérin or BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis that is prepared from a strain of the attenuated live bovine tuberculosis bacillus, Mycobacterium bovis. It is named for, Léon Charles Albert Calmette (1863-1933), (Fig. 1), who was a French physician, bacteriologist and immunologist and Jean-Marie Camille Guérin (1872–1961), (Fig. 2), who was a French veterinarian, bacteriologist and immunologist.

 
Figure 1. Léon Charles Albert
Calmette (1863-1933).
Figure 2. Jean-Marie Camille
Guérin (1872-1961).
Brown-Séquard syndrome [6,7]
Also known as Brown-Séquard’s hemiplegia and Brown-Séquard’s paralysis, is a loss of
sensation and motor function that is caused by the lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. It was first described in 1850 by the famed British / Mauritian neurologist Charles-Édouard Brown-Séquard (1817–1896), (Fig. 3), who studied the anatomy and physiology of the spinal cord. He described this injury after observing spinal cord trauma happen to farmers while cutting sugar cane in Mauritius. Transverse myelitis with Brown-Séquard syndrome following a prophylactic influenza vaccination has been reported.
Figure 3. Charles-Édouard
Brown-Séquard (1817-1896).
Dravet syndrome [8]
Also known as Severe Myoclonic Epilepsy of Infancy (SMEI), is a rare and catastrophic form of intractable epilepsy that begins in infancy. Vaccination might trigger earlier onset of Dravet syndrome in children who, because of an SCN1A mutation, are destined to develop the disease. Dravet syndrome has been found recently as an important underlying condition in cases of alleged vaccine encephalopathy after pertussis vaccination, where vaccination seemed to have precipitated the occurrence of the disease without modifying the long-term course. Dravet syndrome was first described by French physician, Dr. Charlotte Dravet, (Fig. 4), in 1978.
Figure 4. Charlotte Dravet.
Evans syndrome [9]
Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual’s antibodies attack their own red blood cells and platelets. The syndrome was first described in 1951 by R. S. Evans and colleagues. It has been reported to be occur after vaccination.
Gianotti-Crosti syndrome [10]
Also known as papular acrodermatitis of childhood. Documented to follow several vaccines. It is named for Ferdinando Gianotti (1920-1984),who was an Italian physician and Agostino Crosti Agostino Crosti (1896-1988), who was an Italian dermatologist.
Guillain-Barré syndrome [11]

Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) sometimes Landry’s paralysis or Guillain–Barré–Strohl
syndrome, is an acute polyneuropathy, a disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. The disease is usually triggered by an infection but reported to follow vaccination. The French physician Jean Landry (1826-1865), (Fig. 5), first described the disorder in 1859. In 1916, Georges Guillain (1876-1961), (Fig. 6), who was a French neurologist and Jean Alexandre Barré (1880-1967), (Fig. 7), who was a French neurologist, and André Strohl André Strohl (1887- 1977), (Fig. 8), who was a French physiologist diagnosed two soldiers with the illness and described the key diagnostic abnormality of increased spinal-fluid protein production, but normal cell count. Canadian-born neurologist, C. Miller Fisher , described the variant that bears his name
in 1956. Charles Miller Fisher, usually known as C. Miller Fisher (1913- 2012), (Fig. 9), was a pioneering neurologist.

 
 
 
Figure 5. Jean Baptiste Octave
Landry de Thézillat (1826-1865).
Figure 6. Georges Charles
Guillain (1876-1961).
Figure 7. Jean Alexandre Barré
(1880-1967).
Figure 8. André Strohl
(1887-1977).
Figure 9. C. Miller Fisher
(1913-2012).
 
 
Henoch-Schönlein purpura [12,13]

Also known as, Schönlein–Henoch purpura. It is named for,Eduard Heinrich Henoch (1820– 1910), (Fig.10), a German pediatrician, and his teacher Johann Lukas Schönlein (1793–1864), (Fig. 11), who described it in the 1860s. This type of vasculitis has been reported to follow vaccination.

 
Figure 10. Eduard Heinrich
Henoch (1820-1910).
Figure 11. Johann Lukas
Schönlein (1793-1864).
Hughes syndrome [14]

It is another name for antiphospholipid syndrome, a pro-thrombotic condition was described in 1983 which was characterised by the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies, as well as peripheral thrombosis, a tendency to internal organ involvement, repeated miscarriage, and, occasionally, thrombocytopenia. Named after, Graham Robert Vivian Hughes, (Fig. 12), an English rheumatologist. It is reported to follow vaccination.

Figure 12. Graham Robert
Vivian Hughes.
Jenner’s cowpox vaccine [15,16]

Edward Jenner (1749-1823), (Fig. 13), an English doctor, was the first to study and report on the effects of the use of cowpox vaccination to prevent smallpox.

Figure 13. Edward Jenner (1749- 1823). A courtesy of National library of Medicine.
Lambert-Eaton myasthenic
syndrome ( LEMS) [17,18]

Also known as, Lambert-Eaton-Rooke syndrome. It is a rare autoimmune disorder that is characterised by muscle weakness of the limbs. Around 60% of those with LEMS have an underlying malignancy. Lambert, Eaton and Rooke at the Mayo Clinic were the first physicians to substantially describe the clinical and electrophysiological findings of the disease in 1956. Lealdes (Lee) McKendree Eaton (1905-1958), an american neurologist, Edward Howard Lambert (1915-2003), (Fig. 14), an american neurophysiologist, and Edward Douglas Rooke (1912-2001), a canadian physician.

Figure 14. Edward Howard
Lambert (1915-2003).
Marjolin’s ulcer [19]

The term „Marjolin’s ulcer” has been generally accepted to refer to a long-term malignant complication of the scars resulting from burns. However, vaccination, snake bites, osteomyelitis, pilonidal abscesses, pressure sores, and venous stasis may also induce this tumor. It is named after Jean-Nicolas Marjolin (1780 –1850), (Fig. 15), who was a French surgeon and pathologist. It was pointed out that Marjolin did not describe the condition he is eponymously credited with, but that the false ascription to him arose over time.

Figure 15. Jean-Nicolas Marjolin (1780-1850).
Nicolau syndrome [20]
Nicolau syndrome-also known as Embolia Cutis Medicamentosa-is a rare complication of intramuscular and subcutaneous drug injections manifesting as necrosis of skin and the underlying tissue s. It may follow vaccination. It was first described by Freudenthal in 1924 and Nicolau in 1925 in patients treated for syphilis withbismuth salts.
Shoenfeld syndrome [21,22]

In the 1990s the term „functional somatic syndromes” was applied to several syndromes, including Sick building syndrome (SBS) (a term coined for a set of clinically recognizable symptoms and ailments without a clear cause reported by occupants of a building), multiple chemical sensitivity, repetition stress injury, the side effects of silicone breast implants, the Gulf War syndrome (GWS), chronic fatigue syndrome, the irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia. Recently, Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin suggested that four conditionssiliconosis, macrophagic myofascitis, the GWS, and post-vaccination phenomena-which share clinical and pathogenic resemblances, may be included under a common syndrome entitled the „autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants”(ASIA), also known as Shoenfeld’s syndrome. ASIA may also be precipitated by silicon in silicone-filled breast implants (Silicone implant incompatibility syndrome; SIIS). Shoenfeld’s syndrome is named for Yehuda Shoenfeld, M.D., FRCP (Hon). (Fig. 16), the head of Zbludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Chaim Sheba Medical Center at Tel-Hashomer, who and his team elaborated on the above medical conditions.

Figure 16. Yehuda Shoenfeld,
M.D, FRCP(Hon).
Stevens-Johnson syndrome [23]
It is a hypersensitivity reaction that affects the skin and the mucous membranes. The main known cause is certain medications, followed by infections and, rarely, cancers. It may also occur after vaccination. It is named for Albert Mason Stevens (1884-1945) and Frank Chambliss Johnson (1894-1934), american pediatricians who jointly published a description of the disorder in the American Journal of Diseases of Children in 1922.
Still’s disease [24-27]

Adult-onset Still’s disease may be precipitated or relapsed after vaccination for hepatitis. In one study no long-term adverse events were reported after influenza vaccination in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and control group. Thirty-five percent of children with JIA experienced flare of the disease after vaccination. Protective antibodies against at least 2 vaccine viruses 6 months after vaccination were detected in all patients. Adult-onset Still’s disease is a systemic inflammatory disease. The classic presentation is the triad of persistent high spiking fever, joint pain and a distinctive salmon-colored rash. Still’s disease is named after English physician Sir George Frederic Still (1861-1941), (Fig. 17).

Figure 17. The original legend read as „Portrait of George Frederick Still (from the painting by Gerald Kelly, RA), reproduced with permission from Corporate and Legal Services, Kings College Hospital NHS Trust’’, from reference number 27.

              Table I. Eponyms linked to vaccines and its reactions

 
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