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Our Dermatol Online.  2013; 4(Suppl. 2): 435-436
DOI:.  10.7241/ourd.20133.112
Date of submission:  04.05.2013 / acceptance:27.06.2013
Conflicts of interest: None


Khalid Al Aboud1, Ahmad Al Aboud2

1Department of Public Health, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Dermatology Department, King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Corresponding author:  Dr. Khalid Al Aboud    e-mail: amoa65@hotmail.com


Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic is a country in Southeast Europe. According to the 2011 census, Greece’s population is around 11 million. Athens is the nation’s capital and largest city. The official language is Greek [1]. There are several medical eponyms linked to Greece. In Table I [2-12], we highlighted on selected eponyms in the dermatology literature, linked to Greece.
Eponyms in the dermatology
literature linked to Greece
Achilles tendon [2]
Also known as the calcaneal tendon or the tendo calcaneus, which is a tendon of the posterior leg. In Greek mythology, Achilles was a Greek hero of the Trojan War and the central character and greatest warrior of Homer’s Iliad. Because of his death from a small wound in the heel, the term Achilles’ heel has come to mean a person’s point of weakness.
Adamandiades-Behcet syndrome
This best known currently as Behçet disease which is characterized by relapsing oral
aphthae, genital ulcers and iritis. This disease is named after Hulusi Behçet (1889–1948), the Turkish dermatologist and scientist who first recognized the syndrome. This disease also called „Adamantiades’ syndrome” or „Adamandiades-Behçet syndrome”, for the work done by Benediktos Adamantiades. Benediktos Adamantiades (1875-1962), (Fig. 1) was a Greek ophthalmologist.
Figure 1. Benediktos Adamantiades (1875-1962)
Diogenes syndrome [5,6]
Cessation of normal skin cleansing seen in geriatric or self-neglected patients can cause
accumulation of keratinous crusts on the skin. In the extreme end of this spectrum is a condition known as Diogenes syndrome (DS). These patients may have psychiatric disorders like paranoid disorders, mood affection, or emporofrontal dementia.
Diogenes syndrome, also known as senile squalor syndrome, is a disorder characterized by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, social withdrawal, apathy, compulsive hoarding of garbage, and lack of shame. The condition was first recognized in 1966 and designated Diogenes syndrome by Clark et al. The name derives from Diogenes of Sinope, an ancient Greek philosopher, a Cynic and an ultimate minimalist, who allegedly lived in a barrel. Not only did he not hoard, but he actually sought human company by venturing daily to the Agora. Therefore, this eponym is considered to be amisnomer.
Eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis [7,9]
It is a type of pigmented purpuric dermatoses (PPDs) with eczematous changes in the purpuric surface. Named for 2 Greek physicians, Christoforos Doucas (1890-1974) and Ioannis Capetanakis (1913- 1987).
Higouménakis’ sign [10]

It is a unilateral enlargement of the sternoclavicular portion of the clavicle, seen in congenital syphilis. First described by George Higoumenakis in 1927 George Higoumenakis (1895–1983), (Fig. 2), who was a Greek dermatologist.

Figure 2. Photo and signature of George Higoumenakis
Papanicolaou’s smear [11,12]

Also called Pap test and Pap smear. It is a cytodiagnostic test for early detection of cervical cancer. Named after George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962), (Fig. 3), who was a Greek-American cytologist and pathologist.

Figure 3. George Nicholas Papanicolaou (1883-1962)

                  Table I. Selected Eponyms in the dermatology literature linked to Greece

1. Latin America Greece. Wikipedia® [Internet]. Wikimedia Foundation. [Updated 30April 2013; cited 30 April 2013]. Available from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greece
2. Musil V, Stingl J, Bacova T, Baca V, Kachlik D: Achilles tendon: the 305th anniversary of the French priority on the introduction of the famous anatomical eponym. Surg Radiol Anat. 2011;33:421-7.
3. Al Aboud K, Al Aboud A: Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to genital skin disorders. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4:243-6.
4. Dimakakos PB, Tsiligiris B, Kotsis T: The physician B. Adamantiades and his contribution to the disease Adamantiades- Behçet. Int Angiol. 1999;18:176-81.
5. Marcos M, Gómez-Pellín Mde L: A tale of a misnamed eponym: Diogenes syndrome. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2008;23:990-1.
6. Biswas P, Ganguly A, Bala S, Nag F, Choudhary N, Sen S: Diogenes syndrome: a case report. Case Rep Dermatol Med. 2013;2013:595192.
7. Karadag AS, Bilgili SG, Onder S, Calka O: Two cases of eczematid-like purpura of Doucas and Kapetanakis responsive to narrow band ultraviolet B treatment. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2013;29:97-9.
8. Capetanakis J: [In memorium Christoforos Doucas 1890-1974]. Hautarzt. 1976;27:93.
9. Doucas C, Kapetanakis J: Eczematid-like purpura. Dermatologica. 1953;106:86-95.
10. Frangos CC, Frangos CC: George Higoumenakis (1895-1983): Greek dermatologist. J Med Biogr. 2009;17:64-72.
11. Naylor B, Tasca L, Bartziota E, Schneider V: In Romania it’s the Méthode Babeş-Papanicolaou. Acta Cytol. 2002;46:1-12.
12. Mammas IN, Spandidos DA, George N: Papanicolaou (1883- 1962): Fifty years after the death of a great doctor, scientist and humanitarian. J Buon. 2012;17:180-4.



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