2013.3-1S.EponymsUSA

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Our Dermatol Online.  2013; 4(Suppl. 1): 409-413
DOI:.  10.7241/ourd.20133.103
Date of submission:  08.05.2013 / acceptance:18.06.2013
Conflicts of interest: None
 

A MINI-REVIEW ON EPONYMS IN THE DERMATOLOGY LITERATURE LINKED TO UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (USA)

Ahmad Al Aboud1, Khalid Al Aboud2

1Dermatology Department, King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Public Health, King Faisal Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
 

Corresponding author:  Dr. Khalid Al Aboud    e-mail: amoa65@hotmail.com


 

The United States of America (USA or U.S.A.), commonly called the United States (US or U.S.) or America, is a federal republic consisting of fifty states and a federal district [1]. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) and with around 315 million people, the United States is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area and the third-largest by both land area and population [1]. The U.S. is a global leader in medical innovation. America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since 1975 as ranked by a 2001 poll of physicians,. Since 1966 Americans have received more Nobel Prizes in Medicine than the rest of the world combined [1]. Large numbers of the eponyms we use currently, in dermatology are originated from USA, and many new conditions in dermatology are being named after scientists from USA. In Table I, we selected some examples of eponyms in dermatology literature which are linked to USA [2-23].
 
Eponyms in the dermatology
literature linked to USA
Remarks
Becker nevus [2]
Also known as Becker melanosis It appears , first as an irregular pigmentation on the torso or upper arm (though other areas of the body can be affected). This form of nevus was first documented in 1948 by American dermatologist Samuel William Becker (1894–1964), (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. Samuel William Becker (1894-1964)
Bloom syndrome [3]
It is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature and predisposition to the development of cancer. The condition was discovered and first described by New York dermatologist Dr. David Bloom, (Fig. 2), in 1954.
Figure 2. David Bloom, photo by Fabian Bachrach.A courtesy of National Library of Medicine, USA
Bowen disease [4]
Also known as „squamous cell carcinoma in situ”. It is a neoplastic skin disease, it can be considered as an early stage or intraepidermal form of squamous cell carcinoma. Named after, John Templeton Bowen (1857–1940), (Fig. 3), who was an American dermatologist.
Figure 3. John Templeton Bowen (1857–1940)
Cannon diseases [5]

This is another name for White sponge nevus , an autosomal dominant condition of the oral mucosa caused by a mutations in certain genes coding for keratin. The clinical characteristics of the white sponge nevus were first described by Hyde in 1909, followed by Cannon in 1935.A. Benson Cannon (1888-1950), (Fig. 4), was an American physician.

Figure 4. A. Benson Cannon
(1888-1950)
Dennie – Morgan fold [6] Also known as a Dennie–Morgan line or an infraorbital fold, is a fold or line in the skin below the lower eyelid caused by edema in atopic dermatitis. Named after the 2 physicians who described it.Charles Clayton Dennie (1883-1971), was an American dermatologist.
Dilated pore of Winer [7,8]

It was first reported by Winer in 1954. Dilated pore was seen predominantly in young adult males as a solitary brown to black, giant comedo with central pore, which is nonpalpable due to lack of infiltration. Louis H. Winer (1903-1990), (Fig. 5), was an American dermatologist.

Figure 5. Louis H. Winer (1903-1990)
Duhring disease [9]

Dermatitis herpetiformis; sometimes referred to as „Duhring’s disease”. It was first described by Dr. Louis Duhring in 1884. Louis Adolphus Duhring (1845-1913), (Fig. 6), was an American physician and professor of dermatology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Figure 6. Louis Adolphus Duhring (1845-1913)
Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus (FEP)
[10]

It is an unusual neoplasm that was first described by Hermann Pinkus in 1953 as a premalignant fibroepithelial tumor. Although FEP traditionally is considered to be an unusual variant of basal cell carcinoma, its indolent nature and often asymptomatic clinical presentation suggest that it may be best classified as a benign counterpart of BCC, such as a trichoblastoma. It is named after Hermann K. B. Pinkus (1905-1985), (Fig. 7).

Figure 7. Hermann Karl Benno Pinkus (1905-1985)
Fite stain [11]

A special histopathological stain for leprosy. Named for, George Liddle Fite (1933-1993), (Fig. 8), who was arguably the most important American figure in the fight against leprosy. The crowning achievement of a life devoted to the treatment of leprosy was a chief pathologist of the laboratory at the States Leprosarium in Carville, Louisiana.

Figure 8. George Liddle Fite
(1933-1993)
Fox-Fordyce disease [12]

It is a rare inflammatory disorder that affects the apocrine sweat glands. Originally described, in 1902, by 2 American dermatologists; George Henry Fox (1846-1937), (Fig. 9), and John Addison Fordyce (1858-1925), (Fig. 10).

 
Figure 9. George Henry Fox
(1846-1937)
Figure 10. John Addison Fordyce (1858-1925)
Goltz syndrome [13]
This is another name for, focal dermal hypoplasia. Also called Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. It is a rare syndrome and may result in multisystem disorders. Robert William Goltz, is an American dermatologist, born 1923. Robert James Gorlin (1923-2006), was an American oral pathologist and geneticist.
 
Grover disease [14]
This is another name for transient acantholytic dermatosis . The disease was named for Dr. Ralph Grover after he reported the condition in 1970.
 
Hailey-Hailey disease [15]

Also known as benign familial pemphigus. It is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis characterized by the formation of blisters. Named for; Hugh Edward Hailey (1909-1963), (Fig. 11), and W. Howard Hailey (1898- 1967), (Fig. 12).

Figure 11. Hugh Edward Hailey (1909-1963)
Figure 12. W. Howard Hailey
(1898-1967)
Netherton syndrome (NS) [16]
NS is characterized by the triad of trichorrhexis invaginata, ichthyosis linearis circumflexa, and an atopic diathesis. It is named after Earl Weldon Netherton, an American dermatologist. Who described a 4-year old girl with scaly red and different hair, which he called bamboo hair, because of how it looked in the microscope.
 
Schamberg disease [17]

It is a type of pigmented purpuric dermatosis. Named for an American dermatologist, Jay Frank Schamberg (1870-1934), (Fig. 13).

Figure 13. Jay Frank Schamberg (1870-1934)
Senear-Usher syndrome [18]

This is eponym for what is also known as pemphigus erythematodes. It is named after the American dermatologist, Frances Eugene Senear (1889–1958), (Fig. 14), and the Canadian dermatologist, Barney David Usher (1899–1978).

Figure 14. Frances Eugene Senear (1889–1958)
Sister Mary Joseph nodules [19]

It is a metastatic lesion of the umbilicus originating from intra-abdominal or pelvic malignant disease. The English surgeon Hamilton Bailey, in his famous textbook „Physical Signs in Clinical Surgery” in 1949, coined the term „Sister Joseph’s nodule” after Sister Mary Joseph (1856-1939) (Fig. 15) a superintendent nurse at St. Mary’s Hospital in Rochester, Minnesota, USA, who was the first to observe the association between the umbilical nodule and intra-abdominal malignancy.

Figure 15. Sister Mary Joseph
Dempsey (1856-1939)
Solomon’s syndrome [20]

It is one type of epidermal nevus syndromes, which consist of extensive epidermal nevi with abnormalities of the CNS, skeleton, skin, cardiovascular system, genitourinary system, and eyes. It was reported by other authors under many different names, such as ‚Schimmelpenning syndrome’, ‚Feuerstein-Mims syndrome’, ‚Schimmelpenning- ,Feuerstein-Mims syndrome’, ‚epidermal nevus syndrome’, linear sebaceous nevus syndrome’,‚organoid nevusphacomatosis’, or ‚Jadassohn nevus phacomatosis’. Gustav Schimmelpenning, born in 1928,is a German neurologist and psychiatrist. Richard C. Feuerstein ,and Leroy C. Mims are both, American physicians. Lawrence Marvin Solomon,born in 1931,(Fig. 16), is an American dermatologist.

Figure 16. Lawrence Marvin Solomon
Spitz nevus [21]

Also known as spindle and epithelioid cell nevus.It is a benign melanocytic nevus. Named after Sophie Spitz (1910–1956), (Fig. 17), the American pathologist who originally described it in 1948.

Figure 17. Sophie Spitz (1910-1956)
Sutton nevus [22]

This is another name for Halo nevus, which is a mole that is surrounded by a depigmented ring or ‚halo’. Named for , Richard L. Sutton (1878-1952), (Fig. 18).

Figure 18. Richard L. Sutton
(1878-1952)
Wood’s lamp [23]

Wood’s lamp was invented in 1903 by a Baltimore physicist, Robert W. Wood (1868-1955), (Fig. 19). It was first used in dermatology practice for the detection of fungal infection of hair by Margarot and Deveze in 1925.

Figure 19. Williams Wood (1868-1955)

              Table I. Selected Eponyms in the dermatology literature linked to USA

 
REFERENCES
1. United States.Wikipedia® [Internet]. Wikimedia Foundation. [Updated 8 May 2013; cited 8 May 2013]. Available from: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States
2. Obermayer ME: Samuel William Becker,M.D.,1894-1964. Arch Dermatol. 1965;91:97-9.
3. Inamadar AC, Palit A: Bloom syndrome in an Indian child. Pediatr Dermatol. 2005;22:147-50.
4. Ali H, Shipman AR, Orpin SD: John Templeton Bowen, MD, 1857-1940: the centenary of his most famous publication. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2012;37:825-8.
5. Miller JL: A. Benson Cannon, M.D., 1888-1950. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol. 1951;64:110-3.
6. Sams WM: Charles Clayton Dennie 1883-1971. Arch Dermatol. 1971;104:94-5.
7. Steffen C: Louis H. Winer, M.D: the man behind the eponyms. Am J Dermatopathol. 2001;23:254-6.
8. Mittal RR, Sethi PS, Jha A: Dilated pore of Winer. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2002;68:239-40.
9. Bogenrieder T, Stolz W: [From the New World. Louis A. Duhring and dermatitis herpetiformis]. Hautarzt. 2003;54:167-72.
10. Ackerman AB: Remembering Hermann Pinkus. J Cutan Pathol. 1985;12:456-8.
11. Al Aboud K: Eponyms in leprology. Skinmed. 2010;8:323-6.
12. Yost J, Robinson M, Meehan SA: Fox-Fordyce disease. Dermatol Online J. 2012;18:28.
13. Lentini M, Greco D, Schepis C: Cutaneous atrophic guttate lesions in a linear and reticulate pattern: a quiz. Diagnosis:Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome). Acta Derm Venereol. 2013;93:124, 126.
14. Streit M, Paredes BE, Braathen LR, Brand CU: [Transitory acantholytic dermatosis (Grover disease). An analysis of the clinical spectrum based on 21 histologically assessed cases]. Hautarzt. 2000;51:244-9. 15. Pretel-Irazabal M, Lera-Imbuluzqueta JM, España-Alonso A: Carbon dioxide laser treatment in hailey-hailey disease: a series of 8 patients. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2013;104:325-33.
16. Al Aboud A, Al Aboud K: Eponyms in the dermatology literature linked to Palmo-Plantar Keratoderma. Our Dermatol Online. 2013; in press.
17. Shelley WB, Beerman H: Jay Frank Schamberg (1870-1934). Am J Dermatopathol. 1984;6:441-4.
18. Al Aboud K, Al Aboud A: Eponyms in dermatology literature linked to Canada. Our Dermatol Online. 2013;4:113-6.
19. Al Aboud D: Eponyms in medical literature linked to nurses. Our Dermatol Online. 2012;3:372-3.
20. Happle R: Gustav Schimmelpenning and the syndrome bearing his name. Dermatology. 2004;209:84-7.
21 .Ash JE: In memoriam: Sophie Spitz; an appreciation; 1910-1956. Am J Clin Pathol. 1958;30:553-4.
22. Cole HN: Richard L. Sutton, M.D. 1878-1952. AMA Arch Derm Syphilol. 1952;66:424-6.
23. Gupta LK, Singhi MK: Wood’s lamp. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2004;70:131-5.


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